New York City,
|William Waldorf Astor|
|Pâté de foie gras, The Epicurean (1893)|
It was a common practice in the late 1880s to hand out cigarettes when the sorbet was served (and there were no ladies present). But it was unusual to list them so conspicuously among the dishes. The decision to show the cigarettes on the menu was perhaps ordained by fashion or influenced, in some way, by the presence of tobacco magnate Pierre Lorillard IV.7
|Columbian World’s Exposition (1893)|
Congress ultimately awarded the World’s Columbian Exposition to Chicago. In the end, the likes of retailer Marshall Field, industrialist Cyrus McCormick, Jr., and meat-packers Philip Armour and Gustavus Swift had outdone their powerful counterparts in New York. By the time the fairgrounds were finally completed, behind schedule, President Cleveland had returned to the White House for his second term. Newly elected, he traveled to Chicago to open the fair on May 1, 1893—four hundred and one years after Columbus’s voyage.